Negative perceptions of China have increased sharply in many of the world's advanced countries, especially in Australia and the UK, according to a new survey from the Pew Research Center.
The poll comes as China is engaged in multiple trade and diplomatic disputes with its neighbours and other countries around the world, driven in part by a more aggressive diplomatic approach.
The survey conducted across 14 countries showed a majority of people had an unfavourable view of China.
It was conducted from June 10 to August 3 among 14,276 adults across the 14 countries via telephone.
In Australia, 81 per cent said they have an unfavourable view of China, according to the survey, a rise of 24 percentage points from last year.
The rise corresponds with higher tensions in the bilateral relationship after Australia led the call for an international investigation into the origins of the coronavirus.
China responded on the trade front, suspending imports of Australian beef, putting high tariffs on barley from the country and starting an anti-dumping probe into imports of Australian wine.
While the poll showed Australia had the sharpest increase in negative attitudes toward China, other countries also showed an upward trend: those with an unfavourable view toward China hit 74 per cent in Britain, a rise of 19 percentage points compared to last year; 71 per cent in Germany, a rise of 15 points; and 73 per cent in the US, a rise of 13 points.
The 14 countries surveyed were the US, Canada, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, the UK, Australia, Japan and South Korea.
The margin of error for the survey ranged from 3.1 percentage points in South Korea to 4.2 percentage points in Belgium.
In most countries surveyed, those with higher income levels were equally likely as those with lower levels of income to hold the negative views.
The negative views also held across education levels, as those with a post-secondary degree or more were equally likely to have unfavourable views of China as those with less education.
Further, in nine of the surveyed countries - Spain, Germany, Canada, the Netherlands, the US, the UK, South Korea, Sweden and Australia - negative views have reached their highest level in the 12 or more years that the centre has been conducting the survey in those countries, according to Pew Research Center.
The survey said a majority held a negative view of how China has handled the coronavirus, with a median of 61 per cent across the 14 countries saying China had handled the outbreak poorly.
Even more respondents - 84 per cent - said the US has handled the outbreak poorly.