The Biden administration is nearing deals with two Pacific Island nations to extend ties considered critical to maintaining balance in the United States-China rivalry for influence in a region where Beijing is rapidly expanding its economic, diplomatic and military clout.
This week, the US signed memorandums of understanding with the Marshall Islands and Palau that administration officials hope will pave the way for the quick completion of broader agreements that will govern the islands' relations with Washington for the next two decades.
Those ties grant the US unique military and other security rights on the islands in return for substantial aid.
The administration believes extending those so-called Compacts of Free Association agreements will be key to efforts to retain American power and blunt Chinese assertiveness throughout the Indo-Pacific.
The memorandums signed this week lay out the amounts of money the federal government will provide to the Marshall Islands and Palau if their compacts are successfully renegotiated.
Negotiations on a similar memorandum with a third compact country, Micronesia, are ongoing.
The current 20-year compacts with the Marshall Islands and Micronesia expire this year; the current compact with Palau expires in 2024 but administration officials said they believe all three can be renewed and signed by mid-to-late spring.
Officials would not discuss specifics of the amounts of money involved because the deals aren't yet legally binding and must still be reviewed and approved by Congress as part of the budget process.
A Micronesian news outlet, Marianas Variety, reported on Thursday the Marshall Islands will receive $US700 million ($A1.0 billion) across four years under the memorandum that it signed.
But that amount would cover only one-fifth of a 20-year compact extension and does not include the amount Palau would receive.
Joe Yun, Biden's special presidential envoy for compact negotiations, said the amounts will be far greater than what the US had provided in the past.
Islanders have long complained the previous compacts they signed did not adequately address their needs or long-term environmental and health issues caused by US nuclear testing in the 1950s and '60s.
Lawmakers had expressed concern dating back to 2021 that the administration was not giving enough attention to the matter.
Yun, who signed the memorandums with representatives of the Marshalls and Palau on Tuesday and Wednesday in Los Angeles, said the Marshall Islands, in particular, would be compensated for such damage and would be given control over how that money is spent.
Yun said it would pay for "nuclear-affected communities' health, welfare and development".
He said the US had committed to building a new hospital as well as a museum in the Marshalls to preserve the memory and legacy of their role, notably in the Pacific theatre during World War II.
This week's signings clear the way for individual federal agencies - including the Postal Service, the Federal Aviation Administration, the Federal Emergency Management Agency and the National Weather Service - to negotiate their own agreements with the Marshalls and Palau, which will then become part of the broader compacts.
Along with the federal money, those agencies provide their services to the islands.
In return, the US is given unique military and national security basing rights and privileges in an area where China is increasingly flexing its muscles.
Yun said China did not come up specifically in the negotiations but it was a major element in all sides' discussions.
"The threat from China is unstated but there is no question that China is a factor," Yun said.