Highlights in history on this date:
1430 - Joan of Arc is captured by the Burgundians, who sell her to the English.
1498 - Girolamo Savonarola, Italian religious and political reformer, is hanged and burnt at the stake.
1533 - Marriage of England's King Henry VIII to Catherine of Aragon is declared null and void.
1568 - William of Orange defeats Spanish force at Ehilgerlee in Holland, marking start of Revolt of the Netherlands.
1618 - The Defenestration of Prague, a Bohemian revolt against the Habsburg Emperor, takes place and begins the Thirty Years War.
1701 - Captain William Kidd is hanged in London after being convicted of piracy and murder.
1785 - In a letter to a friend, Benjamin Franklin reveals his invention of spectacles of two thicknesses, the first bi-focals.
1797 - During a financial crisis, a cartoon by James Gilray appears depicting the Bank of England as a haggard old woman, generally thought to be the origin of its nickname The Old Lady of Threadneedle Street.
1868 - Kit Carson, American frontiersman and soldier who contributed greatly to the westward expansion of the US, dies.
1873 - Canada's Mounties - then called the North West Mounted Police - is established.
1883 - Adelaide Zoo is established.
1901 - Gaetano Brecci, assassin of King Umberto of Italy, commits suicide.
1915 - Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary in World War I.
1920 - The Communist Party of Indonesia is formed, the first such leftist organisation to be set up in Asia outside the former Russian empire.
1926 - Lebanon is proclaimed a republic by France.
1934 - US outlaws Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow are killed in a police ambush in Louisiana.
1937 - John D Rockefeller, US multimillionaire and founder of the Standard Oil Company, dies.
1939 - Britain's Parliament approves plan for independent Palestine by 1949, which later is denounced by Jews and Arabs in Palestine.
1944 - British and US forces launch a massive offensive from the beach-head at Anzio, Italy.
1945 - Nazi SS Chief Heinrich Himmler commits suicide while imprisoned in Luneburg, Germany.
1960 - Adolf Eichmann, Nazi leader wanted for war atrocities, is found and captured by Israeli agents in Argentina.
1969 - Death toll in Malaysia rioting exceeds 500, with 90 per cent of casualties Chinese.
1971 - An earthquake destroys town of Bingol in eastern Turkey, killing 1,000 people.
1992 - Judge Giovanni Falcone, a top Italian anti-Mafia prosecutor, is assassinated. A one-tonne bomb explodes as his three-car motorcade passes.
1993 - More than 1.5 million Cambodians ignore Khmer Rouge threats and vote in the country's first free elections in more than two decades.
1996 - A North Korean pilot flies his MiG-19 jet across the world's most heavily guarded border and defects to South Korea.
2002 - A heat wave strikes India and kills 1,030 people, mainly in the southern state of Andhra Pradesh. Temperatures reached a record 51 degrees Celsius.
2007 - A 60-year-old woman gives birth to a pair of boys in New Jersey. Hospital officials believe Frieda Birnbaum is the oldest woman to give birth to twins in the United States.
2008 - The government of Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez accuses almost 400 opposition candidates of crimes and declares them ineligible to run for office in November while they're under investigation.
2009 - Former South Korean President Roh Moo-hyun, 62, leaps to his death amid a widening corruption scandal.
2011 - A dense ash cloud from an Icelandic volcano blows toward Scotland, causing airlines to cancel flights.
2014 - President Vladimir Putin pledges that Russia will respect the results of Ukraine's presidential election, a strong indication the Kremlin wants to cool down the crisis.
2015 - John Forbes Nash Jr, 86, a mathematical genius whose struggle with schizophrenia was chronicled in the movie A Beautiful Mind dies in a car crash in New Jersey.
2016 - A Sydney man accused of setting fire to his Rozelle convenience store, killing three people, denies buying petrol to start the blaze and instead blames armed robbers.
2017 - Australians awake to news a suicide bomber has killed 22 people, including a number of children, and injured 116 at the end of an Ariana Grande concert at Manchester Arena.
2018 - Stargazers around Australia gather to look at the sky in attempt to break a Guinness World Record (set by the Australian National University in 2015, with 7960 stargazers across 37 locations). With over 40,000 people simultaneously observing the moon, they smash the record.
2019 - South Australian police release CCTV footage of the moments leading up to a second woman in two months being grabbed at from behind by a man in an Adelaide park.
Carl von Linne (Linnaeus), Swedish botanist (1707-1778); Franz Anton Mesmer, Austrian physician (1753-1815); Douglas Fairbanks, US actor (1883-1939); Sir Hugh Casson, British artist-architect (1910-1999); Denis Compton, English cricketer (1918-1997); Humphrey Lyttleton, UK musician (1921-2008); Rosemary Clooney, US singer (1928-2002); Nigel Davenport, UK actor (1928-2013); Barbara Barrie, US actress (1931-); Joan Collins, English actress (1933-); Charles Kimbrough, US actor (1936-); John Newcombe, Australia tennis player (1944-); Lauren Chapin, US actress (1945-); David Graham, Australian golfer (1946-); Anatoly Karpov, Russian chess champion (1951-); Marvin Hagler, US boxer (1952-); Drew Carey, US comedian (1958-); Graham Hick, Zimbabwe-born cricketer (1966-); Phil Selway, rock musician with Radiohead (1967-); Jewel, American singer (1974-); Ruben Zadkovich, Australian soccer player (1986-).
Thought For Today:
Genius does what it must, talent does what it can - Edward Bulwer-Lytton, English author (1803-1873).