HIGHLIGHTS IN HISTORY ON THIS DATE
1542 - Pope Paul III establishes the Roman Inquisition to fight Protestantism.
1683 - Lord William Russell is beheaded in England for plotting to kill the king.
1798 - France's Napoleon Bonaparte defeats the Egyptians at Battle of the Pyramids and becomes master of Egypt.
1820 - Danish physicist Hans Christian Oersted announces his discovery that an electrical current creates a magnetic field.
1861 - The Confederate army defeats Union troops at the Battle of Bull Run in the US state of Virginia at the start of the American Civil War.
1873 - Jesse James and his gang pull off the first train robbery in the US, taking $US3000 from the Rock Island Express in Adair, Iowa.
1920 - Sinn Fein and unions riot in Belfast, Ireland; King Faisal recognises French mandate in Syria.
1925 - In Dayton, Tennessee, John T Scopes is convicted of violating state law for teaching Darwin's theory of evolution. The conviction is later overturned.
1944 - American forces land on Guam during World War II.
1959 - US District Court judge in New York City rules that DH Lawrence's famous book Lady Chatterley's Lover is not pornographic.
1960 - Sirimavo Bandaranaike of Ceylon - now Sri Lanka - becomes the world's first woman prime minister.
1969 - US Apollo 11 astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin Jr. blast off from the moon and head back to Earth after man's first lunar landing.
1973 - France explodes a nuclear device over Mururoa Atoll in the South Pacific, despite worldwide protests.
1991 - South African government admits it secretly gave $US600,000 in recent years to African National Congress rival Inkatha Party.
1994 - Former dissident author Alexander Solzhenitsyn returns to Moscow 20 years after he was expelled.
1998 - Concerned that violence in Kosovo could spill over, the UN Security Council decides to add about 300 troops to the 750-strong UN peacekeeping force in Macedonia.
2000 - Bolivian drug trafficker, Roberto Suarez Gomez, the self-proclaimed "King of Cocaine", dies at age 68. He is believed to be the model for the acclaimed US movie Scarface.
2004 - Saudi security forces discover the head of American hostage Paul M Johnson Jr in a freezer during a raid on a suspected al-Qaeda hideout.
2006 - Israel moves tanks and troops to its border, calling up reserves and warning civilians to flee Hezbollah-controlled southern Lebanon as it prepares for a likely ground invasion.
2007 - India elects 72-year-old Pratibha Patil as the country's first female president.
2008 - Radovan Karadzic, a former Bosnian Serb leader and one of the world's top war crimes fugitives, is arrested in a Belgrade suburb by Serbian security forces.
2012 - Syrian rebels make a run on Aleppo in some of the fiercest fighting seen in the country's largest city, which has been a bastion of support for President Bashar Assad over the course of the 17-month uprising.
2014 - Bowing to international pressure, pro-Moscow separatists release a train packed with bodies and hand over the black boxes from a downed Malaysia Airlines plane, four days after it was shot down over rebel-held eastern Ukraine.
2016 - Former Australian soldier Adam Whittington walks from a Lebanese jail on bail after being charged over a botched 60 Minutes child abduction attempt in Beirut, later slamming the Nine Network for its role in the incident.
2017 - A man who chased down, ran over and killed 14-year-old Elijah Doughty while he rode a stolen motorcycle in WA's Goldfield's region is acquitted of manslaughter but convicted of the lesser charge of dangerous driving causing death sparking protests across the country.
Saint Philip Neri, Italian churchman (1515-1595); Baron Paul Julius von Reuter, German-born news service pioneer (1816-1899); Ernest Hemingway, US author and Nobel laureate (1899-1961); Marshall McLuhan, Canadian media theorist (1911-1980); Isaac Stern, Russian-born violinist (1920-2001); Don Knotts, US actor (1924-2006); Norman Jewison, Canadian director (1926-); Yusuf Islam (formerly Cat Stevens), British pop singer (1948-); Jeff Fatt, Chinese-Australian musician, purple shirt member of the children's band The Wiggles (1953-); Robin Williams, US actor (1951-2014); Josh Hartnett, US actor (1978-).
Thought For today:
A good scare is worth more to a man than good advice - Edgar Watson Howe, American editor and author (1853-1937).