Today in History, July 16

By AAP and agencies
2017 - Australian woman Justine Damond was fatally shot by police in Minneapolis


622 - This date is generally considered as the start of the Islamic Era when Mohammed begins his flight from Mecca to Medina.

1048 - Benedict IX, known as the "Boy Pope", resigns from the papacy.

1533 - Atahualpa, king of the Incan empire, is executed on orders of conquistador Francisco Pizarro.

1557 - Anne of Cleves, the fourth wife of King Henry VIII, dies.

1661 - The first banknotes in Europe are issued by the Bank of Stockholm.

1809 - A revolt breaks out in upper Peru against Spanish authority.

1855 - Britain's Parliament establishes responsible government throughout Australian states, except for Western Australia.

1867 - Reinforced concrete is patented by Joseph Monier of Paris.

1882 - Mary Todd Lincoln, the widow of US President Abraham Lincoln, dies.

1910 - John Duigan pilots the first plane exclusively designed and built in Australia.

1918 - Nicholas II, the last Russian tsar, is murdered with his family and entourage by the Bolsheviks.

1925 - The first elected parliament in Iraq opens in Baghdad.

1935 - The world's first parking meters are installed in Oklahoma City.

1940 - Hitler gives orders to prepare the invasion of Britain.

1942 - In France, during World War II, almost 14,000 Jewish people are arrested in Paris as part of a German round-up of the Jewish community.

1945 - The first atomic bomb is detonated over US desert in New Mexico.

1948 - The world's first turbine-propeller aircraft, the Vickers Viscount, makes its maiden flight.

1951 - US novelist JD Salinger publishes The Catcher In The Rye.

1957 - US Marine Major John Glenn sets a transcontinental speed record when he flies a jet from California to New York in three hours, 23 minutes and eight seconds.

1969 - US Apollo 11 spacecraft is launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, with the goal of landing the first men on the moon.

1979 - Saddam Hussein takes over as president of Iraq.

1986 - Twelve miners die when an explosion and cave-in trap them in Queensland's Moura coalmine.

1990 - A major earthquake kills 1600 in the Philippines.

1992 - Thousands of refugees flee from Bosnia to Croatia as Serb forces expand their hold on Bosnia.

1993 - Britain's MI5 security service ends more than 80 years of secrecy when it publishes a booklet on its operations.

1994 - The first fragments from comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 crash into Jupiter, creating a 1930km-wide fireball.

1996 - Ukrainian Prime Minister Pavlo Lazarenko narrowly escapes an assassination attempt when his motorcade is bombed in Kiev.

1997 - Parliament of the Yugoslav Federation elects Slobodan Milosevic as president in a hastily organised vote condemned by opposition parties.

1998 - The UN says it is pulling its human rights mission out of Rwanda after it fails to reach an agreement with the government on a new mandate.

1999 - A plane piloted by John F Kennedy Jr, son of the late president, and carrying his wife Carolyn Bessette and her sister Lauren disappears. Their bodies are recovered by Navy divers five days later.

2000 - In Brazil four million litres of crude leak from a refinery into a river near the southern city of Curitiba, in one of the country's worst oil spills.

2002 - In an unprecedented statement, the Irish Republican Army offers its "sincere apologies and condolences" to the families of the victims of three decades of conflict during its campaign against British control of Northern Ireland.

2003 - UN war crimes court convicts four former officers of the Kosovo Liberation Army, an ethnic Albanian guerilla force that clashed with government troops in the 1998-99 Kosovo conflict.

2005 - The sixth volume of the Harry Potter saga goes on sale, Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, selling nine million copies in its first 24 hours, a record not broken till the release of the seventh volume.

2007 - A 6.6 magnitude earthquake strikes northwestern Japan, causing a fire and radioactive water leak at the world's largest nuclear plant. Eleven people are killed and at least 1000 injured.

2008 - Australia's ABC South Asia correspondent Peter Lloyd is arrested in Singapore on drug offences.

2011 - Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez leaves home for Cuba to begin chemotherapy, vowing to win his fight against cancer. He dies in March 2013.

2013 - 18 people are killed and 47 are injured in a riot following a boxing match in Indonesia.

2014 - A Dutch court rules that the Netherlands is liable for the deaths of more than 300 Bosnian Muslim men and boys in the Srebrenica massacre, the worst atrocity on European soil since World War II.

2016 - A faction of Turkey's armed forces attempt a coup against the government of President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, sparking unrest that claims more than 300 lives and sees mass arrests of soldiers, teachers and judges.

2017 - Australian woman Justine Damond is fatally shot by police in Minneapolis after reporting a disturbance outside her home.

Today's Birthdays:

Sir Joshua Reynolds, English artist (1723-1792); Camille Corot, French painter (1796-1875); Roald Amundsen, Norwegian explorer (1872-1928); Trygve Lie, Norwegian statesman and UN Secretary-General (1896-1968); Ginger Rogers, US actress (1911-1995); Margaret Court, Australian tennis champion (1942-); Stewart Copeland, US musician (1952-); Mark McEntee, Australian musician (1952-); Michael Flatley, Irish dancer (1958-); Will Ferrell, US actor (1967-); Wendell Sailor, former Australian rugby union player (1974-); Adam Scott, Australian golfer (1980-); Steve Hooker, Australian pole-vaulter (1982-).

Thought For Today:

He who tells the truth must have one foot in the stirrup - Armenian proverb.