HIGHLIGHTS IN HISTORY ON THIS DATE
1533 - Pope Clement VII excommunicates England's King Henry VIII.
1708 - In Belgium, England's Duke of Marlborough beats the French under Louis Vendome at the battle of Oudenarde in the war of Spanish Succession.
1892 - US Patent Office decides J W Swan, not Thomas Edison, is the inventor of the electric light carbon for the incandescent lamp.
1921 - Mongolia declares its independence from China.
1929 - Firemen in Gillingham, England plan to show off their abilities by "rescuing" nine boys and six firemen from a house. Instead of using smoke bombs, they set fire to the structure, and the 15 die.
1960 - Premier Moise Tshombe of Katanga proclaims independence of the Zairean province.
1974 - Sir John Kerr is sworn in as Governor-General of Australia.
1975 - China's great Terracotta Army is uncovered near the ancient capital Xian.
1977 - The US Medal of Freedom is awarded posthumously to Reverend Martin Luther King Jr.
1978 - A truck carrying industrial gas explodes and sets fire to a campsite on the Mediterranean coast in Spain, killing at least 180 people.
1987 - The United Nations proclaims newborn boy Matej Gaspar in Zagreb, Yugoslavia, (now Croatia), the world's five billionth inhabitant.
1989 - Death of Oscar-winning British actor Laurence Olivier, aged 82.
1991 - The moon moves between the earth and sun in the century's final total eclipse.
1992 - Six people drown after falling into the Kiama blowhole in NSW.
1994 - Seven East European technicians are shot dead in two attacks in Algeria, the victims of a campaign by Islamist extremists to cripple the economy and topple the government.
1996 - Riot police and British soldiers clash with Catholic protesters trying to block annual Protestant marches in Belfast, Northern Ireland.
2000 - A damaged petrol pipeline explodes in southern Nigeria, killing 200 people and injuring dozens of others.
2000 - In Japan, the Nachi-Fujikoshi company says it will pay up to 40 million yen to Korean plaintiffs for forced labour during World War II in the first settlement relating to the case, brokered by Japan's Supreme Court.
2001 - Widows who lost husbands and sons in one of the worst massacres in modern history lash out at Slobodan Milosevic and fugitive leaders of the Bosnian Serbs on the sixth anniversary of the slaughter.
2002 - South Korean President Kim Dae-jung appoints the country's first female prime minister, Chang Sang.
2005 - Two gun attacks in Belfast leave one man dead and another critically wounded on the eve of Northern Ireland's tensest day of the year - the divisive "Twelfth" holiday of mass Protestant marches.
2006 - Eight bombs hit Bombay's commuter rail network during rush hour in the financial hub of India, killing about 200 people and wounding hundreds more. The attacks are blamed on Pakistan-based Islamist militants.
2010 - Spain defeats Netherlands 1-0 in extra time to win the FIFA World Cup.
2011 - An ageing cruise ship, severely overcrowded and malfunctioning, lists to one side before sinking in heavy wind and rain on a river east of Moscow, killing as many as 129 people.
2013 - Hundreds of Shi'ites are quietly expelled from the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia and other Gulf Arab states on suspicion of being supporters of the militant group Hezbollah.
2014 - Death of Tommy Ramone, co-founder of seminal punk band the Ramones, aged 65.
2015 - Mexican drug lord Joaquin "El Chapo" Guzman escapes from the Altiplano maximum-security prison, via a 1.5km tunnel from his shower. He remains on the run for six months.
2016 - Pauline Hanson's One Nation Party is accused of copying large slabs of its policies from online sources, including Wikipedia and right-wing US websites.
2017 - A pilot of an Air Canada plane makes a last-minute manoeuvre to avoid landing on a taxiway at San Francisco International Airport where four passenger jets are lined up to take off.
2018 - The Queensland Maroons win the final game of the 2018 State of Origin series in Brisbane, despite losing the series to the NSW Blues.
2019 - Britain's ambassador to Washington quits after days of criticism from Donald Trump, following the leaking of diplomatic cables which spoke unfavourably of the US president.
Robert I the Bruce, Scottish king (1274-1329); Thomas Bowdler, English editor of Shakespearean works (1754-1825); EB White, US author (1899-1985); Gough Whitlam, 21st Australian prime minister (1916-2014); Yul Brynner, Russian-born actor (1920-1985); Giorgio Armani, Italian fashion designer (1934-); Leon Spinks, former world heavyweight boxing champion (1953-); Richie Sambora, rock guitarist of Bon Jovi fame (1959-); Suzanne Vega, US singer (1959-); Mick Molloy, Australian comedian (1966-); Konstantinos Kenteris, Greek athlete (1973-); Lil' Kim, US rapper (1975-); Rachael Taylor, Australian actress (1984-); Caroline Wozniacki, Danish tennis player (1990-); Karise Eden, Australian singer-songwriter (1992-).
Thought For Today: You come into the world alone and you go out of the world alone yet it seems to me you are more alone while living than ever going and coming - Emily Carr, Canadian artist and author (1871-1945).