HIGHLIGHTS IN HISTORY ON THIS DATE:
1623 - Death of Anne Hathaway, widow of William Shakespeare.
1660 - Death of Diego Velazquez, Spanish painter who became a major figure of 17th century art and was famed for his realism.
1661 - Portuguese and Dutch sign treaty whereby Portuguese retain Brazil and Dutch keep Ceylon - now Sri Lanka.
1806 - Holy Roman Empire ends as Francis II formally resigns the Imperial Dignity and becomes Francis I, Emperor of Austria.
1824 - Simon Bolivar defeats Spanish forces at Junin in Peru.
1825 - Bolivia is proclaimed an independent republic after nearly 300 years of Spanish rule.
1828 - Mehmet Ali, ruler of Egypt, agrees to British demands to quit Greece.
1840 - Louis Napoleon attempts uprising at Boulogne in France, but it fails and he is later sentenced to life imprisonment.
1844 - French under Duc de Joinville begin hostilities against Morocco.
1849 - Peace of Milan ends war between Sardinia and Austria.
1876 - Two Australian constables accidentally shoot the Rev William Healy, mistaking him for a bushranger.
1879 - Work begins in Adelaide to create Australia's first waterborne sewerage system.
1890 - Convicted murderer William Kemmler becomes the first human put to death in an electric chair at Auburn Prison, New York.
1896 - The French Parliament votes to annex Madagascar.
1914 - Serbia and Montenegro declare war on Germany.
1915 - The Battle of Lone Pine begins on Gallipoli. Australian forces win seven Victoria Crosses, but suffer more than 2200 casualties.
1918 - The Marne offensive, the last major German attack of World War I, ends in failure.
1926 - The first movies with sound premiere in New York; American Gertrude Ederle becomes the first woman to swim the English Channel.
1940 - Estonia is absorbed into the Soviet Union as the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic.
1945 - In the first use of a nuclear weapon in warfare, US plane drops atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan, near end of World War II, killing at least 117,000 people.
1962 - Jamaica achieves independence after 300 years of British rule.
1966 - Abu Dhabi's eccentric Sheik Shakhbout is deposed in bloodless coup by his brother, Sheik Zayed.
1973 - Mistaken attack by US bombers on Cambodian town Neak Long kills and wounds hundreds.
1978 - Death of Pope Paul VI.
1990 - Pakistan's Benazir Bhutto is ousted by military after 20 months as prime minister and 17 years before her assassination during a campaign rally in the country's north.
1992 - Three Muslim men who emerge from detention camps in Northern Bosnia tell of beatings and rapes.
1996 - US scientists claim to have found evidence of ancient life on Mars in remnants of a meteorite discovered in Antarctica.
1998 - Former White House intern Monica Lewinsky spends nearly nine hours testifying before a US grand jury about her relationship with President Bill Clinton.
2001 - The Irish Republican Army agrees to biff out their weapons and Britain, Ireland and Catholic leaders herald the move as a breakthrough.
2007 - Russia deploys new air defence systems capable of shooting down ballistic missiles.
2008 - Army commanders oust Mauritania's freely elected president Sidi Ould Cheikh Abdallahi in a bloodless coup.
2011 - The last Australian troops serving in Iraq are withdrawn, more than eight years after the conflict began.
2012 - American robot Curiosity lands on Mars for an ambitiouis exploration mission.
2013 - Australia's official interest rate drops to its lowest level in history at 2.5 per cent.
2014 - Indirect negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian territories commence in Egypt over a possible cease-fire in the Gaza strip.
2015 - The 70th anniversary of the dropping of an atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima.
2016 - The 2016 Olympic Games officially opens at Rio's Maracana Stadium with a burst of colour and Samba dancing, casting aside Brazil's deep recession, corruption scandals and crime.
2017 - The Eiffel Tower is evacuated after a young Frenchman, recently discharged from a psychiatric hospital, brandishes a knife and tries to breach security. Police treat the incident as an attempted terrorist attack.
2018 - Famous French chef Joel Robuchon died at the age of 73. In 2016 he reached a record number of Michelin stars with 32.
Daniel O'Connell, Irish leader (1775-1847); Lord Alfred Tennyson, English poet (1809-1892); Sir Alexander Fleming, British discoverer of penicillin (1881-1955); Lucille Ball, US actress-comedienne (1911-1989); Robert Mitchum, US actor (1917-1997); Sir Freddie Laker, British entrepreneur (1922-2006); Andy Warhol, US artist (1928-1987); Peter Bonerz, US actor-director (1938-); Daryl Somers, Australian TV personality (1951-); M Night Shyamalan, US film director (1970-); Geri Halliwell, British singer (1972-); David Campbell, Australian singer (1973-); Stuart O'Grady, Australian cyclist (1973-); Shaun Timmins, Australian rugby league player (1976-); Melissa George, Australian actress (1976-).
Thought For Today:
There are philosophies which are unendurable not because men are cowards, but because they are men - Ludwig Lewisohn, German-born novelist-critic (1883-1955).