Highlights in history on this date:
1793 - Louvre Museum in Paris opens to public.
1895 - Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen, German physicist, discovers X-rays.
1907 - Australian Arbitration Court Justice Higgins sets minimum wage: two guineas for a six-day week.
1923 - Adolf Hitler stages unsuccessful coup in Munich that comes to be known as the Beer-Hall Putsch.
1933 - Nadir Shah, ruler of Afghanistan, is assassinated and succeeded by his son, Mohammed Zahir Shah.
1939 - Seven people are killed when bomb explodes at Buergerbraukeller in Munich just after Hitler delivers speech on the anniversary of the abortive 1923 putsch.
1942 - Allied forces begin landings in North Africa, beginning the Algeria-Morocco Campaign of World War II.
1944 - The Tasmanian Australian National Football League is instituted.
1960 - John F Kennedy elected US president.
1972 - West and East Germany end 23 years of Cold War antagonism by signing a good-neighbour treaty pledging mutual respect for each other.
1978 - Pope John Paul II calls human rights "the great effort of our time".
1988 - Nearly 9000 foreign tourists are evacuated from Sri Lankan beach resorts after Sinhalese extremists threaten to attack south coast hotels.
1989 - Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega offers to end arms imports to his country in exchange for demobilisation of Contra rebels.
1990 - US President George Bush orders 200,000 more US troops to the Persian Gulf in preparation for an attack on Iraq.
1992 - Japanese escort ship collides with a Greenpeace boat tracking a freighter loaded with plutonium.
1994 - France arrests 95 people in its biggest sweep against Islamic militants.
1996 - Australia bars Sinn Fein leader Gerry Adams from entering the country because of his "intimate association" with the Irish Republican Army (IRA).
1998 - In Bangladesh, 15 former military commanders are sentenced to death for the 1975 assassination of the country's first prime minister.
2000 - Canadian writer Margaret Atwood wins Britain's coveted Booker Prize for her novel The Blind Assassin.
2001 - The discovery of eight remains - five skeletons and the partially-clad bodies of three young women - in Mexico ignites fear that a series of 57 rape-murders did not end in the 1990s.
2003 - A car bomb detonates in a residential compound in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, killing at least 17 people and wounding more than 120 others. Most of the victims are believed to be Arab Muslims.
2004 - Muslim groups ask the Dutch government to protect Islamic sites after an elementary school is bombed - the latest in escalating tensions following the killing of a filmmaker, allegedly by an Islamic radical.
2005 - France declares a state of emergency after nearly two weeks of rioting in heavily immigrant suburbs of Paris and other cities.
2008 - New Zealand goes to the polls and elects a National Party government led by John Key, ending nine years of Labour rule under Helen Clark.
2009 - Iraq's parliament ends weeks of debate and passes a long-delayed law paving the way for the planned January election to go forward, sidestepping a crisis that could have delayed the US troop withdrawal.
2010 - Scientists at the world's largest atom smasher in Geneva say they have succeeded in recreating conditions shortly after the Big Bang.
2011 - The Gillard government's controversial carbon tax passes federal parliament.
2012 - Iran bans the import of 75 luxury products as Western economic sanctions increasingly choke off its commerce and critical oil revenue.
2013 - The Qantas heavy maintenance base at Avalon closes with the loss of 300 jobs.
2014 - Australian grandmother Toni Anne Ludgate is found dead in India after a two-month search, with three men facing murder charges.
2015 - Detainees riot at Christmas Island following the death of asylum seeker Fazel Chegeni after he escaped from a detention centre.
2016 - US Republican Donald Trump is elected the nation's 45th president after a close and often highly animated contest with his Democratic rival Hillary Clinton.
2017 - The Cowboys co-captain and indigenous mentor Johnathan Thurston is named Queensland's Australian of the Year for 2018.
2018 - Tesla announces Australian Robyn Denholm, the chief financial officer at Telstra, will replace Elon Musk as the company's chair.
Bram Stoker, British author (1847-1912); Margaret Mitchell, US author of Gone With The Wind (1900-1949); Rickie Lee Jones, US singer-songwriter (1954-); Gordon Ramsay, British chef and TV personality (1966-); Chris Fydler, Australian swimmer and Olympic official (1972-); Tara Reid, US actress (1975-); Sam Sparro, Australian producer, songwriter, performer (1982-).
Thought For Today:
Man is born to live, not to prepare for life. - Boris Pasternak, Russian author (1890-1960).