Highlights in history on this date:
963 - Holy Roman Emperor Otto deposes Pope John XII for dishonourable conduct and for plotting an armed conspiracy. Leo VIII succeeds as Pope.
1154 - Nicolas Breakspear, the first and only Englishman to be elected Pope, is crowned as Adrian IV.
1586 - England's Queen Elizabeth I confirms death sentence against Mary Queen of Scots.
1642 - Death of Cardinal de Richelieu, French statesman and chief minister to King Louis XIII.
1791 - Britain's Observer newspaper, the oldest Sunday newspaper in the world, appears for the first time.
1816 - James Monroe is elected fifth president of the United States. He is the first president to have been a senator.
1842 - Spanish soldier-politician Baldomero Espartero bombards Barcelona and crushes revolt.
1871 - One of world's richest tin deposits is discovered at Mt Bischoff in Tasmania by James Smith.
1893 - British and French reach agreement on Siam (Thailand).
1942 - US bombers strike Italy's mainland for first time in World War II.
1944 - British troops, aided by Greeks, fight in streets of Athens in World War II.
1971 - Indian troops, tanks and planes launch attacks in East Pakistan, now Bangladesh, and Indian planes hit key airfields in West Pakistan.
1972 - Government of Honduras is overthrown in military coup.
1976 - Death of British composer Benjamin Britten, aged 63.
1980 - Portugal's Social Democratic Prime Minister Francisco Sa Carneiro is killed in a light plane crash, which might have been caused by sabotage.
1995 - Three major Australian construction companies, Pioneer, Boral and CSR, are fined $20 million for price-fixing.
1996 - Australian financier Alan Bond pleads guilty to dishonesty charges relating to Bell Resources.
1996 - NASA launches a spacecraft to Mars carrying the first-ever interplanetary rover.
1997 - A historic treaty to ban anti-personnel landmines worldwide becomes reality when 121 nations sign the accord in Ottawa.
2002 - Indonesian police arrest a Muslim cleric, Muklas, whom they suspect of masterminding the October Bali bombings.
2006 - Kevin Rudd becomes opposition leader after winning a challenge against the ALP's Kim Beazley.
2007 - James Kemsley, the artist behind Australian comic strip Ginger Meggs, dies of motor neurone disease, aged 59.
2008 - Zimbabwe declares a national emergency over a cholera epidemic and the collapse of its healthcare system.
2009 - An explosion apparently caused by pyrotechnics tears through a nightclub in the Russian city of Perm, killing more than 100 people.
2011 - The Australian Labor Party votes in favour of selling Australian uranium to India, overturning the party's long-standing ban.
2012 - St James' Palace announces that Prince William and his wife Catherine are expecting their first baby.
2013 - A member of the inner circle of Hezbollah, Hassan al-Laqis, is assassinated in Beirut.
2016 - Fidel Castro's ashes are interred in a private ceremony in Santiago, ending nine days of mourning for the man who ruled Cuba for nearly half a century.
2017 - Data reveals it takes Sydney homebuyers twice as long to save a 20 per cent deposit for a median-priced home than those in Perth.
2018 - Italian police arrest the suspected new head of the Sicilian mafia Settimo Mineo and 45 other alleged mobsters in what is a huge blow to organised crime on the Mediterranean island.
Thomas Carlyle, Scottish essayist-historian (1795-1881); Edith Cavell, English nurse-patriot (1865-1915); General Francisco Franco, Spanish dictator (1892-1975); Bill Collins, Australian TV personality and movie buff (1934-2019); Tony Gresham, champion Australian amateur golfer (1940-); Jeff Bridges, US actor (1949-); Marisa Tomei, US actress (1964-); Jay-Z, US rapper (1969-); Tyra Banks, US model-actress (1973-); Jimmy Bartel, Australian rules footballer (1983-).
Thought For Today:
There's much to be said for challenging fate instead of ducking behind it. - Diana Trilling, American author and literary critic.