Highlights in history on this date:
1573 - Irish rebellion is crushed effectively with surrender of James Fitzmaurice.
1821 - Death of John Keats, English Romantic poet, in Rome.
1836 - Siege of the Alamo begins in US state of Texas against Mexican attackers.
1854 - Britain agrees to leave territory north of Orange River in South Africa, allowing for establishment of constitution for Orange Free State.
1861 - US president-elect Abraham Lincoln arrives secretly in Washington to take office, an assassination plot having been foiled in Baltimore.
1898 - In France, novelist Emile Zola is imprisoned for writing his J'accuse letter accusing the government of anti-semitism and wrongly jailing Captain Alfred Dreyfus.
1905 - The Rotary Club is founded by lawyer Paul Percy Harris in Chicago.
1911 - New Zealander Joseph Hammond carries the first aircraft passenger in Australia: Mrs Hammond.
1919 - Benito Mussolini breaks with the Socialist party and founds his own Fasci del Comattimento (Fascist) party in Italy.
1931 - Death of Australian opera singer Dame Nellie Melba, in hospital in Sydney.
1933 - Japan begins occupation of China north of the Great Wall.
1934 - Sir Edward Elgar, English composer, dies.
1938 - First oil discovery in Kuwait.
1942 - Japanese submarine shells a US oil refinery near Santa Barbara, California.
1942 - In World War II, a Master Mutual Aid Agreement is signed between the US, Britain, Australia and New Zealand.
1945 - US Marines on Iwo Jima capture Mount Suribachi, and raise the American flag.
1954 - First mass inoculation of children against polio with the Salk vaccine begins in the US.
1965 - Death of Stan Laurel, British-born "skinny" half of the Laurel and Hardy comedy duo.
1970 - The Indian-Pacific train service leaves Sydney at the start of the first-ever direct rail crossing of the Australian continent.
1983 - US President Ronald Reagan announced plans for a new space-based defence system later dubbed "Star Wars".
1991 - Military junta seizes power in Thailand after a bloodless coup.
1995 - Australian High Court rules enforcement provisions in Federal Government's anti-discrimination legislation are unconstitutional.
1997 - Scientists in Scotland announce they have succeeded in cloning an adult mammal, producing a lamb named Dolly.
2000 - An Australian-led multinational force formally leaves East Timor and hands over to UN peacekeepers.
2001 - Remnants of Russia's Mir space station plunge into the Pacific Ocean after engineers end the laboratory's 15-year mission in space.
2005 - New York authorities end efforts to identify victims of the September 11, 2001 attacks, leaving unidentified the remains of nearly half the 2749 people killed in the World Trade Center.
2009 - The late Heath Ledger wins the best supporting actor Oscar for his role as The Joker in the Batman movie The Dark Knight.
2013 - Melbourne hosts its first White Night, an all-night festival of the arts.
2015 - TV entertainer Rolf Harris, recently jailed in Britain on child sex charges, is stripped of his Order of Australia honours.
2017 - Unions protest as the Fair Work Commission decides to slash Sunday penalty rates.
2018 - Barnaby Joyce announces he will resign as Deputy Prime Minister and leader of the National Party following revelations of his affair with a former staffer.
Samuel Pepys, English diarist (1633-1703); George Frederick Handel, German composer (1685-1759); Sir George Frederick Watts, English artist (1817-1904); William McMahon, Australia's 20th prime minister (1908-1988); Johnny Winter, US singer-musician (1944-2014); Howard Jones, British singer (1955-); Helena Sukova, Czech tennis player (1965-); Kelly Macdonald, Scottish actor (1976-); Emily Blunt, British actor (1983-); Aziz Ansari, US actor (1983- ); Dakota Fanning, American actor (1994-).
Thought For Today:
Love is the chain whereby to bind a child to his parents - Abraham Lincoln (1809-65).