Highlights in history on this date:
19 BC - Death of Virgil, epic Roman poet.
1327 - King Edward II of England is murdered in Berkeley Castle; he is succeeded by his son Edward III.
1435 - Signing of the Treaty of Arras by which Philip of Burgundy makes peace with Charles VII of France and receives Macon, Auxerre and part of Picardy.
1745 - In Battle of Prestonpans in Scotland, Jacobite army of just over 3000 under Bonnie Prince Charlie defeats the English Royal forces led by Sir John Cope.
1746 - French forces conquer Madras, India, after brief siege.
1792 - In its first public sitting, France's Convention, on a proposal by Collot D'Herbois, abolishes the monarchy.
1832 - Death of Sir Walter Scott, Scottish novelist and poet, aged 61.
1898 - Tzu-Hsi, dowager Empress of China, seizes power and revokes reforms.
1922 - United States establishes a protectionist tariff.
1938 - Czech government agrees to Anglo-French plans to cede the Sudetenland to Germany.
1939 - Premier Armand Calinescu of Romania is assassinated by the Iron Guard.
1949 - West Germany comes into existence as US, British and French occupation zones are transferred to German control.
1964 - Malta becomes independent state within British Commonwealth.
1969 - More than 120 people are killed in rioting in western India that stems from alleged Muslim abuse of cattle, which Hindus regard as sacred.
1974 - US film actor Walter Brennan dies. He was the first actor to win three Academy Awards and best known for his roles in westerns such as My Darling Clementine.
1978 - Leaders of Syria, Algeria, South Yemen, Libya and Palestine Liberation Organisation announce in Damascus, Syria, that they are severing relations with Egypt because of that nation's accord with Israel.
1985 - Mexico counts at least 2000 dead from earthquake that devastated four states.
1993 - Russian President Boris Yeltsin dissolves parliament, hardline politicians subsequently vote to impeach him and hole up in parliament building.
1994 - Prosecutors announce that child molestation charges will not be filed against singer Michael Jackson; but the case will remain open until 1999.
1997 - A volcanic avalanche buries Montserrat's airport and flows into the Atlantic Ocean 5.5 km away.
1999 - An earthquake measuring 7.6 on the Richter scale strikes Taiwan, killing at least 2321 people and injuring 8712.
2004 - Floodwaters recede and rescue workers reach homes buried in mud, but Tropical Storm Jeanne has killed more than 700 Haitians and left 250,000 homeless.
2007 - Floods hit nations across Africa including Ghana and Togo in the west, and Sudan, Uganda, Somalia and Kenya in the central and eastern regions, killing 200 people and displacing hundreds of thousands
2007 - Former Labor senator and minister Bob Collins dies from bowel cancer, aged 61, before child sex charges against him can be resolved.
2008 - Qantas' first Airbus A380 touches down in Sydney after two years of production delays.
2010 - Italian authorities seize $US23 million euros ($A24.89 million) from a Vatican bank account and say they have begun investigating top officials of the Vatican bank in connection with a money-laundering probe.
2011 - Treasurer Wayne Swan is named Euromoney magazine's Finance Minister of the Year, only the second time an Australian has won the prestigious award in its 29-year history.
2013 - A four-day siege of the Nairobi Westgate shopping mall by Somali al-Qaeda-linked militants leaves at least 67 people dead and about 20 missing.
2015 - Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull drops Joe Hockey from the ministry, appointing Scott Morrison as Treasurer and Marise Payne as the first female defence minister.
2016 - A Queensland court hears Tiahleigh Palmer's foster brother Trent Thorburn feared he had made the 12-year-old pregnant days before his father allegedly murdered the schoolgirl.
2017 - Rescuers in Mexico City scramble to find survivors after an earthquake, which collapsed more than 40 buildings and ended up leaving more than 370 dead.
2018 - Australia's first Senate enquiry into dowry abuse hears there are a disturbing number of women experiencing domestic violence and even being killed by their partners as a result of dowry-related abuse and an urgent national response is required.
HG Wells, English author (1866-1946); Gustav Holst, English composer (1874-1934); Don Dunstan, former South Australian premier (1926-1999); Larry Hagman, US television actor (1931-2012); Leonard Cohen, Canadian poet-songwriter (1934-2016); Stephen King, US author (1947-); Bill Murray, US actor (1950-); Kevin Rudd, former Australian prime minister (1957-); Ethan Coen, US producer-writer of the Coen brothers (1957-); Rob Morrow, US actor (1962-); Curtly Ambrose, Antiguan cricketer (1963-); David Wenham, Australian actor (1965-); Ricki Lake, US TV host (1968-); Liam Gallagher, British rock musician (1972-); Anthony Hayes, Australian actor (1977-); Nicole Richie, US socialite (1981-); Anna Meares, Australian cyclist (1983-).
Thought For Today:
We believe at once in evil, we only believe in good upon reflection. Is this not sad? - Madame Dorothee Deluzy, French actress (1747-1830).