Highlights in history on this date:
37 - Roman Emperor Tiberius, having retired to Capri, dies on a visit to the Italian mainland.
1190 - More than 150 Jews massacred in York, England.
1521 - Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan reaches Philippine Islands.
1534 - England severs all relations with the Pope.
1787 - The First Fleet begins assembling off the Isle of Wight before setting sail for proposed colony of NSW.
1792 - Sweden's King Gustavus II is shot and fatally wounded during a masquerade party at the Royal Opera of Stockholm.
1827 - Freedom's Journal, the first newspaper for blacks in the United States, is published in New York.
1872 - The first English Football Association (FA) Cup final is played at the Kennington Oval in London; the Wanderers beat the Royal Engineers 1-0.
1898 - Aubrey Beardsley, British artist and illustrator, dies of consumption, aged 25.
1906 - Japan nationalises its railways.
1922 - Britain recognises kingdom of Egypt under Faud I, with joint Anglo-Egyptian sovereignty over Sudan.
1926 - The first liquid-fuel rocket is successfully launched by Professor Robert Goddard at Auburn, Massachusetts.
1945 - Japanese resistance to US assault on Iwo Jima in Pacific comes to end in World War II.
1968 - In the Vietnam War, during an operation in the village of My Lai, a platoon of US troops massacres 500 Vietnamese civilians.
1973 - Federal Attorney General Senator Lionel Murphy and Commonwealth Police raid ASIO offices in Melbourne for files on Croatian terrorists.
1985 - US journalist Terry Anderson is kidnapped in Beirut; he is not released until December 4, 1991.
1988 - Former US national security adviser John Poindexter, former White House aide Oliver North, retired Air Force Major General Richard Secord and Secord's business partner, Albert Hakim, are indicted on charges relating to the Iran-Contra affair.
1994 - Russia agrees to phase out production of weapons-grade plutonium.
1995 - Sinn Fein leader Gerry Adams meets US President Bill Clinton for the first time.
1996 - Thousands of civilians flee the Chechen town of Samashky as Russian artillery shells rain down on their battered homes.
1999 - The entire European Commission, the top executive body of the European Union, resigns after allegations of corruption and inefficiency.
2001 - Rap impresario Sean "Puffy" Combs is acquitted in New York of taking an illegal handgun into a crowded Manhattan hip-hop club where three people were later wounded.
2004 - Twenty-three Taliban and suspected Taliban are freed in one of the largest releases of prisoners from US military custody in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.
2008 - Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd announces the discovery of the wreck of the Kormoran, the German cruiser believed responsible for the 1941 sinking of HMAS Sydney, off the WA coast.
2014 - A week after Malaysia Airlines flight 370 vanished with 239 people on board, the search area widens as far south as Australia.
2016 - Donald Trump defies the odds by winning big in the latest Republican primaries, appearing as the likely frontrunner against Democrat Hilary Clinton in the race for the presidency.
2018 - Rescue workers rush to find survivors after a 950-tonne bridge collapsed onto several lanes of traffic in Florida. Six people lost their lives in the disaster.
2019 - A young man eggs Queensland senator Fraser Anning during a political meeting in Melbourne after the senator linked the Christchurch mosque attacks to immigration.
Georg Simon Ohm, German physicist (1787-1854); Henny Youngman, US comedian (1906-1998); Leo McKern, Australian actor (1920-2002); Jerry Lewis, US comedian (1926-2017); Bernardo Bertolucci, Italian film director (1940-2018); Erik Estrada, US actor (1949-); Isabelle Huppert, French actress (1953-); Flavor Flav, US rap singer (1959-); Lauren Graham, US actress (1967-); Nicole Trunfio, Australian model (1986-).
THOUGHT FOR TODAY
He who does not enjoy his own company is usually right. - Coco Chanel, French fashion designer (1883-1971)