Highlights in history on this date:
1597 - Austria's Archduke Albert captures Amiens in France.
1702 - First English daily newspaper to meet with some success, The Daily Courant, launched near London's Fleet Street.
1810 - Emperor Napoleon of France is married by proxy to Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria.
1812 - King Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia declares Jews citizens with equal rights.
1818 - Mary Shelley's novel Frankenstein is published.
1843 - Tin discovered near Beechworth, Victoria.
1845 - Maori rise up against British rule in New Zealand.
1851 - First performance of Giuseppe Verdi's opera Rigoletto in Venice.
1917 - British forces capture Baghdad during World War I.
1935 - Hermann Goering officially creates the German airforce, the Luftwaffe.
1942 - As Japanese forces continue to advance in the Pacific during World War II, US General Douglas MacArthur leaves the Philippines for Australia.
1945 - The huge Krupps munitions works in Germany is destroyed when 1000 Allied bombers take part in the biggest daylight air raid in history.
1955 - Death of Sir Alexander Fleming, Scottish bacteriologist and Nobel prize winner who (with the help of Australia's Howard Florey) discovered penicillin in 1928.
1960 - US launches Pioneer V into orbit around the sun from Cape Canaveral.
1970 - Death of Erle Stanley Gardner, US author and lawyer who created the character Perry Mason.
1977 - More than 130 hostages held in Washington DC by Muslim militants are freed after ambassadors from three Islamic nations join the negotiations.
1983 - Andrew Peacock becomes leader of Australian Liberal Party after the resignation of Malcolm Fraser.
1995 - Melinda Gainsford becomes the first Australian to win a world sprint title in more than 30 years, in the world indoor 200m.
1998 - South Korea says it will compensate women who were enslaved in Japanese army brothels in World War II.
2003 - Libya reaches political agreement with the US and Britain to accept civil responsibility for the 1988 Lockerbie bombing and pay $US10 million ($A13.36 million) each to victims' families.
2004 - A series of bombs blow apart four commuter trains in Madrid, killing some 199 people and wounding more than 1400 in the worst terrorist attack in Spanish history, claimed in the name of al-Qaeda.
2008 - Cricket Australia and the Pakistan Cricket Board postpone Australia's March tour to Pakistan after a bombing attack.
2009 - Cargo ship Pacific Adventurer loses 31 containers of ammonium nitrate overboard as Cyclone Hamish lashes southeast Queensland.
2011 - A major earthquake off the main Japanese island of Honshu causes widespread damage and triggers a tsunami that kills up to 20,000 people, devastating the city of Sendai and the Fukushima nuclear power plant.
2012 - Melbourne-born singer, actor, radio, stage and television performer Ian Turpie dies, aged 68.
2015 - Melbourne teenager Jake Bilardi, who had been dubbed "Jihadi Jake", is killed while carrying out a suicide attack in Ramadi, Iraq.
2018 - China says any trade war with the US will only bring disaster to the world economy, after US President Donald Trump announced heavy tariffs on steel and aluminium.
2019 - Authorities recover the damaged black box from an Ethiopian Airlines plane that crashed en route from Addis Ababa to Nairobi, killing all 157 people on board.
Sir Malcolm Campbell, British businessman and world speed record holder on land and water (1885-1967); Lawrence Welk, US bandleader (1903-1992); Nancy Cato, Australian author (1917-2000); Rupert Murdoch, Australian-born media magnate (1931-); Geoff Hunt, Australian squash champion (1947-); Douglas Adams, British writer (1952-2001); Nina Hagen, German singer (1955-); Simone Buchanan, Australian actress (1968-); Johnny Knoxville, US actor (1971-); Joel and Benji Madden, US rockers of Good Charlotte fame (1979-).
Thought For Today:
There are some people who leave impressions not so lasting as the imprint of an oar upon the water. - Kate Chopin, American writer (1851-1904).