A TIMELINE OF HOLDEN'S OPERATIONS IN AUSTRALIA:
* 1856 James Alexander Holden establishes a saddlery in Adelaide.
* 1885 JA Holden and Son partners with Henry Frost, to become Holden and Frost which later starts building horse-drawn carriages and coaches
* 1914 Holden and Frost produces its first custom made car body using its carriage building expertise
* 1917 Holden and Frost begin large scale production of car bodies as Holden's Motor Body Builders
* 1924 Holden opens new Woodville Plant in Adelaide with Australia's most modern production line, to make bodies only for General Motors such as Buick, Oakland, Oldsmobile, Cadillac, GMC and Chevrolet
* 1926 General Motors Australia formed, with plants in five state capitals assembling GM vehicles which use Holden motor bodies
* 1928 Holden's Lion emblem is designed by Rayner Hoff, based on the fable of the invention of the wheel
* 1931 Amid the great depression, GM puts together a rescue package to merge GM Australia with Holden, to form General Motors - Holden's
* 1936 Fishermans Bend Headquarters and production line opened by Prime Minister Joe Lyons
* 1940 Pagewood Plant in Sydney opened by Prime Minister Robert Menzies
* 1940-45 Holden factories work at full capacity for Second World War effort, building aircraft, munitions, boats, guns, troop carriers, trucks, vehicles and other military hardware.
* 1948 Prime Minister Ben Chifley launches the first Holden 48/215, known as the FX
* 1951 First Holden ute goes on sale - named the 50-2106 Coupe Utility
* 1953 Iconic FJ Holden goes into production
* 1954 First Holdens are exported to New Zealand
* 1959-63 Elizabeth Plant, SA is built and goes into operation in stages; Queen Elizabeth visits the plant in 1963
* 1962 One millionth Holden produced, an EJ Premier sedan (retained by GMH) at the Dandenong Plant
* 1967 Torana, Holden's first small car is introduced, based on GM's Vauxhall Viva
* 1968 First Holden designed V8 is built, first Monaro coupe released and Holden's scores its first Bathurst win
* 1974 Three millionth Holden produced, exports pass $400M mark, employment peaks at 26,515
* 1978 VB Commodore is launched, to replace the Kingswood and quickly becomes Australia's top selling car
* 1980 Pagewood plant in Sydney closes, after 40 years production
* 1985 Acacia Ridge assembly plant in Queensland closes
* 1986 After five years of massive losses, GMH teeters on bankruptcy and is bailed out by GM and reorganised into two companies - Holden's Motor Company and Holden's Engine Company
* 1990's Large profits made every year, totalling $1.4 billion for the decade
* 1998 Major export program to Middle East announced as Holden celebrates 50th anniversary of the FX launch.
* 2006 VE Commodore is launched, fully designed and engineered by Holden for $1 Billion
* 2011 First locally-built Cruze small car is driven off Elizabeth production line by Prime Minister Julia Gillard.
* 2013 GM announces decision to cease manufacturing in Australia in 2017
* 2016 Engine Plant at Fishermans Bend closes, bringing an end to Holden manufacturing in Victoria. Cruze ends production at Elizabeth.
* 2017 Last Holden to be built in Australia, a VF Commodore, drives off the Elizabeth production line.
* 2019 After 41 years as Holden's longest-serving nameplate in Australia, Holden announces ZB Commodore will not be replaced
* 2020 GM announces the end of Holden vehicle sales, design and engineering operations.
Source: General Motors Holden