Men have been warned not to take a pair of popular vitamin and mineral supplements after research showing they can dramatically increase the risk prostate cancer.
Overdosing on the mineral selenium by taking supplements raises the chance of developing high-grade cancer by 91 per cent, scientists have found.
Vitamin E pills also boost the risk of aggressive cancer, more than doubling it for men lacking selenium.
The researchers believe selenium can turn toxic when present in the body at excessively high levels.
At the same time, the mineral appears to protect against the harmful effects of too much vitamin E.
The US study was a follow-up of Select, the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial, which originally recruited more than 35,000 men to see if the supplements could help prevent prostate cancer.
Researchers stopped the trial three years early in 2008 after hints that instead of protecting men, vitamin E was putting them at greater risk, while selenium showed no benefit.
A subsequent comparison of 1739 participants diagnosed with prostate cancer and 3117 matched cancer-free individuals highlighted the hazards.
Study leader Dr Alan Kristal from Seattle's Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Centre said: "These supplements are popular - especially vitamin E - although so far no large, well-designed and well-conducted study has shown any benefits for preventing major chronic disease.
"Men using these supplements should stop, period. Neither selenium nor vitamin E supplementation confers any known benefits, only risks."
Selenium supplements had no effect on men who started out lacking the mineral, but were harmful when added to baseline levels already high. For aggressive, high-grade cancers, the risk went up by 91 per cent.
Among men with low selenium status at the start of the study, vitamin E supplements increased the overall risk of prostate cancer by 63 per cent while the high-grade risk rose by 111 per cent.
Of the men in the study who developed prostate cancer, 489 were diagnosed with high-grade disease.
Dr Kristal said people were often misled by the supposed benefits of dietary supplements.
"Many think dietary supplements are helpful or at the least innocuous," he said.
"This is not true. We know from several other studies that some high-dose dietary supplements - that is, supplements that provide far more than the daily recommended intakes of micronutrients - increase cancer risk."