Eighty-one cats have been removed from a property in western Victoria due to animal cruelty concerns.
The RSPCA and police went to the property in the Ararat region on Wednesday and Thursday and assessed 116 cats, 82 horses and three sheep.
All of the animals had to be treated for various welfare concerns and 81 cats were surrendered to the RSPCA.
The organisation will investigate the person in charge of the animals for allegedly breaching a 10-year ownership ban.
Animal cruelty allegations will also be investigated.
"We are committed to helping people better care for their pets but will hold people to account where legal responsibilities are not upheld," RSPCA Victoria's Lisa Calleja said.
"Where there are significant concerns, animals will be seized and taken into our care to ensure their welfare."
Anyone who breaches an ownership ban order under the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act could be penalised up to $92,460 in fines or two years' imprisonment.