Dozens of people protesting Kazakhstan's opposition-free election have been arrested in the country's capital and in its principal city.
Five parties are competing for seats in the lower house of parliament, but all are loyal to the government. The Central Asian country's only registered opposition party declined to field candidates.
A party led by Kazakhstan's powerful ex-president Nursultan Nazarbayev is set to sweep the parliamentary election, as it has done for decades.
More than 30 demonstrators against the election were detained in the principal city of Almaty on Sunday, according to the news agency Akipress.
The Interfax news agency said an unspecified number of protesters were also detained in the capital, Nur-Sultan.
The ruling Nur Otan party is expected to maintain or increase its current domination of the parliament of the former Soviet republic, which is rich in oil, gas and mineral resources.
The party is headed by Nazarbayev, who was in power from independence in 1991 until his resignation last year.
Although he stepped down, he retains significant power as head of the national security council.