Malaysia media guide
Malaysia "seems to have a rich media landscape, but the state media wield a great deal of influence", says Reporters Without Borders (RSF).
The media avoid taboo subjects or criticism of politicians and officials, and legislation allows for the jailing of journalists, including under the sedition law, the Official Secrets Act, and a 2021 "anti-fake news" ordinance.
The TV sector includes state-owned and private networks, and pay TV platforms.
Media ownership is highly concentrated. Media Prima is the largest conglomerate. Its national TV networks include TV3, the biggest terrestrial broadcaster. Print newspapers have experienced falling circulations.
State-owned Radio Television Malaysia (RTM) operates two main TV networks. Private stations broadcast in Malay, Tamil, Chinese and English.
The online media are very active and some outlets "cherish their editorial autonomy", says RSF. Online and social media are the main sources of news.
There were 30.9 million internet users by July 2022, comprising 94% of the population (Internetworldstats.com).
New Straits Times - English-language daily
The Star - English-language daily
The Sun - English-language daily
The Malay Mail - English-language daily
Radio Television Malaysia (RTM) - state-run, operates TV1, TV2
TV3 - commercial terrestrial network
ntv7 - commercial terrestrial network
8TV - commercial terrestrial network
TV9 - commercial terrestrial network
Astro - pay TV, networks include Astro Awani news channel
Radio Television Malaysia (RTM) - state-run, operates some 30 national and regional networks
Era - private
Hot FM - private
Sinar - private
Bernama - state-run agency
Malaysiakini - news site
Free Malaysia Today (FMT) - news site