Proposed respect at work laws have faced intense criticism in parliament from Labor and the cross bench.
The bill prohibits workplace sexual harassment and makes it a valid reason for dismissal, adopting six of the 55 recommendations of a report by Sex Discrimination Commissioner Kate Jenkins.
Labor and the Greens wanted more done to prevent harm, rather than set up a process of handling complaints after they happen.
A so-called "positive duty", or prevention clause, would put the onus on employers to create a safe workplace and educate their staff about appropriate behaviour.
During heated debate on Wednesday, the government said it had adopted recommendations that could be made quickly.
"The bill will ensure all Australians are protected from workplace sexual harassment by expanding the scope of existing sexual harassment prohibitions, promoting clarity for employers and workers, and reducing procedural barriers," Attorney-General Michaelia Cash said.
But Labor senator Louise Pratt is concerned mine sites in remote Queensland, Western Australia and other areas are not covered without explicit requirements to prevent sexual harassment, leaving workers at risk.
People from other countries and cultures also need help to adjust, and can face victimisation themselves, critics say.
The minister rejected calls for additional duties for employers to be added to the respect at work bill, which is the government's first response to the commissioner's report.
One Nation leader Pauline Hanson said the anti-harassment laws would lead to persecution of men.
"It's like we're raising a nation of sooks," she said.
Greens senator Larissa Waters rejected claims that women "make this stuff up"
"The reality is that so many more women who are sexually harassed in their workplace don't make complaints, precisely because they fear they won't be believed, and because they fear they'll end up having to pay enormous costs they just suck it up," she said.
Senator Cash dismissed accusations from Labor and the Greens that the government had ignored calls for change for a year as the Jenkins report "gathered dust".
The bill expands the anti-sexual harassment regime to public officials, including members of parliament and their staff.
Tens of thousands of women mobilised to demand change after former Liberal staffer Brittany Higgins went public last year with an allegation of rape at Parliament House in 2019.
"Scandal after scandal after scandal has forced this government to engage with the questions that face Australian women," Labor senator Jenny McAllister said.
But women were looking at the prime minister's record and saw the bill as "just another political fix", she said.
The government on Wednesday added a two-month delay on sexual harassment claims from bullying, to avoid legal snarl ups as cases brought under existing laws would have to move to a different law.
Senator Cash will also expand work health and safety regulations to cover "psychosocial" hazards that can cause psychological and physical harm.
Debate was interrupted for other Senate business.