A US judge put a small-town newspaper editor behind bars last month after one of his reporters used an audio recorder for note-taking purposes at a murder trial - a punishment the paper and media rights groups consider excessive.
North Carolina Superior Court Judge Stephan Futrell sentenced Gavin Stone, the news editor of the Richmond County Daily Journal, to five days in jail before having him handcuffed in court and hauled off to jail.
Stone was released the next day but still faces the possibility of more time in lockup.
Brian Bloom, the paper's publisher, acknowledged his reporter shouldn't have had the recorder in court because it was not allowed, but criticised the judge's move to imprison an editor for a minor infraction committed by a colleague.
"The penalty does not fit the crime," he said.
"Let's put this in perspective: You stop a murder trial not once, but twice, because a guy had a tape recorder sitting next to him on a bench at a courtroom. Let's put our priorities in place here."
Futrell did not respond to a request for comment.
Superior Court rules allow electronic media and still photography coverage of public judicial proceedings, but grant judges the authority to prohibit the technology.
Staff writer Matthew Sasser, who has worked at the paper only since January, brought the recorder into the courtroom on June 21 and 22 after being screened through courthouse security, Bloom said.
Stone, who in January 2020 received a letter from a different judge reprimanding him for taking a photo inside a courtroom, was aware phones were prohibited and had been notified at the time that he wasn't allowed to bring a "cellphone, camera or any other recording device into the courthouse" unless he had a judge's permission.
Having remembered only the prohibition on phones, Stone told Sasser that an audio recorder was fine.
Sasser used the device during a recess to interview a source in the courtroom. When Futrell learned Sasser had the recorder, he halted the trial and directed the reporter to remove it from his courtroom.
Sasser went back to the newsroom. A bailiff called him to return to court to speak with the judge and Stone accompanied him back.
The two expected the judge to speak with them behind closed doors but were surprised when a bailiff directed them inside the courtroom, where Futrell stopped the trial again and found the editor and reporter in criminal contempt of court.
The judge sentenced Stone to five days in jail and fined Sasser $US500 ($A667).
"I was blown away that the decision was made that fast," Stone said.
"It happened so fast. There was no real way to process it in the moment and recognise what I was even involved in. All of a sudden, I'm in orange."
Bloom hastily found a lawyer who filed an appeal and got Stone out of jail the next day.
"It's a little disturbing when a judge starts contempt proceedings over the use of an unobtrusive, quiet, pocket-sized device that a reporter uses to do their job in a courtroom," said Brooks Fuller, director of the North Carolina Open Government Coalition and an assistant professor or journalism at Elon University.
The newspaper's appeal is scheduled to be heard July 16. Futrell has removed the original penalties on Stone and Sasser and is allowing an appeals court to decide whether to make the editor and reporter pay as much as $US500 each and serve up to 30 days in jail.
Under North Carolina law, courts can punish someone for criminal contempt if the act was preceded by a clear warning from the court that the conduct was improper.
The newspaper stopped covering the murder trial once Stone was taken into custody, partially out of fear the judge would retaliate. It has not reported on Stone's arrest or Sasser's fine.