A 23-year-old Iranian asylum seeker is in a serious condition on Nauru after setting himself alight.
Immigration Minister Peter Dutton said the man would be airlifted from Nauru for medical treatment on Wednesday night.
"His outlook is not very good at all," Mr Dutton told reporters in Melbourne.
The incident occurred while officials from the United Nations refugee agency were on the island.
Mr Dutton said he had no advice about whether there was a link between the two.
Refugee groups claim four other people previously tried to self-harm by swallowing washing powder.
"If people think that through action of self-harm or harming a member of their family that is going to result in them coming to Australia and staying here permanently, that will not be the outcome," the minister said.
Nauru police are also investigating reports two Iranian women have gone missing on the island.
"There's some suggestion that people may have departed by boat, but I don't have any confirmation of that," Mr Dutton said.
- Readers seeking support and information about suicide prevention can contact Lifeline on 13 11 14 or MensLine Australia 1300 78 99 78