The European Union has proposed an effective ban on the sale of new petrol and diesel cars from 2035, aiming to speed up the switch to zero-emission electric vehicles (EVs) as part of a broad package of measures to combat climate change.
The EU executive, the European Commission, proposed a 55 per cent cut in CO2 emissions from cars by 2030 versus 2021 levels, much higher than the existing target of a 37.5 per cent reduction by then.
It also proposed a 100 per cent cut in CO2 emissions by 2035, which would make it impossible to sell new fossil fuel-powered vehicles in the 27-country bloc.
"This is the sort of ambition we've been waiting to see from the EU, where it's been lacking in recent years," said Helen Clarkson, chief executive of the Climate Group, a non-profit group that works with business and government to tackle climate change.
"The science tells us we need to halve emissions by 2030, so for road transport it's simple - get rid of the internal combustion engine."
European car industry association ACEA, however, said banning a specific technology was not a rational way forward, adding that internal combustion engines, hybrids, battery electric and hydrogen vehicles needed to play a role in the transition.
To boost sales EV sales, officials in Brussels also proposed legislation that would require countries to install public charging points no more than 60 kilometres apart on major roads by 2025.
Officials foresee 3.5 million public charging stations for cars and vans by 2030, rising to 16.3 million by 2050.
"The transition to electric vehicles is going much faster than anybody had ever anticipated but then we are under an obligation to create the right incentives for that," said Frans Timmermans, the EU's head of climate change policy.
"So the charging infrastructure should be there."
Even when buyers have been able to afford the price premium for a part- or all-electric vehicle, many have been deterred by "range anxiety" because of a lack of public charging stations.
Car makers had signalled they would only accept tougher emissions targets in return for massive public investment in chargers.
The Commission estimates 80-120 billion euros ($A127-190 billion) will need to be spent on public and private chargers across the EU by 2040.
The Commission's proposals will need to be negotiated and approved by EU member states and the European Parliament, which could take around two years.
Low-emission car sales surged in Europe last year even as the COVID-19 pandemic knocked overall vehicle sales and one in every nine new cars sold was an electric or plug-in hybrid.
Full electrification is a long way off, however.
Many car makers have announced investments in electrification, partly in anticipation of tougher EU emissions targets.
Last month, Volkswagen AG said it would stop selling cars with combustion engines in Europe by 2035, though later in China and the United States.
And Stellantis said last week it would invest more than 30 billion euros by 2025 on electrifying its line-up.
The European Commission also proposed allowing plug-in hybrids to count as low-emission vehicles up to 2030.
That will come as a relief to car makers like BMW and Renault that have invested heavily in these cars - which have both an electric motor and a combustion engine.