Recent evidence shows the scale of sexual violence against women and children in Australia has been severely underestimated. Family violence is a key driver.
Yet, young women are currently invisible in responses to such violence. Our research sought to understand why young women’s experiences are so overlooked. We found that young women have typically been sidelined in approaches to family violence, and need to be given specific regard in any strategies to address it.
Young women’s over-representation in statistics
Further, the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare estimates 2.2 million Australians (12% of the population) have had experiences of sexual violence, threats and/or assault since the age of 15.
While physical assault rates for men have almost halved since 2008-09, the largest reported increase in physical assault is that experienced by young women aged 18 to 29. There are also increasing rates of sexual assault in Australia. Recent data show this rising for the tenth year in a row, from 83 to 121 victim-survivors per 100,000 since 2011.
Despite experiencing unique and serious safety risks, young women are almost invisible in public debate on the issue.
Young women’s absence from discussions
Our recently published research found young women lack voice and visibility in discussions about family violence in Australia, and particularly intimate partner violence.
This is a considerable problem, as young women are overrepresented in family violence and sexual assaults statistics. National police data show young women aged 15-19 are more likely than any other age group of women to experience sexual assault.
Although there are no national data specifically focused on recording the intimate partner violence experiences of young women, national secondary school health surveys show 61% of young women aged between 14 and 18 report unwanted sex due to partner pressure. Despite such concerning figures, young women’s voices are rarely heard.
The 2015 Victorian Royal Commission into Family Violence highlighted that in the absence of youth-focused family violence supports, young people are generally relying on informal networks, such as friends, for family violence assistance. Seven years later, work is now being undertaken to raise awareness and develop a framework for youth intimate partner violence risk assessments.
We need a youth-focused national agenda
Across Australia, family violence work that is focused on young women generally involves primary prevention. This includes respectful relationships and consent education in schools, of which there is no current standardised national curriculum.
Nationally in Australia, there is currently no uniform definition of intimate partner violence in youth and adolescent relationships. Instead, the issue is known by a patchwork of terms: teen dating violence, adolescent intimate partner violence, youth family violence. This minimises the problem further.
Young people’s relationships are different from those of adults. Although there are some common ways in which power and control are exerted and experienced, young women have unique needs and risks when embarking on their first relationships. When these involve abuse, this can have a serious impact on a young woman’s health, safety, identity, and how they understand themselves and relationships.
Moreover, these harmful patterns can persist into adulthood. Their experiences of harm and isolation are further compounded by the lack of youth specific and friendly family violence supports and services.
Our findings highlight the importance of not only recognising the unique and diverse experiences of young women, but the need to ensure services and responses reflect the complexity of young women’s experiences.
There has been some recent notable work by the Victorian government.
However, unless we grapple with the underpinning issues at a national level, we risk continuing to overlook these young women and exacerbate their experiences of violence. It is essential that youth-specific intimate partner violence responses exist. They need to be designed and implemented in a way that is informed by and honours the diverse voices of young women in Australia.
This article is republished from The Conversation is the world's leading publisher of research-based news and analysis. A unique collaboration between academics and journalists. It was written by: Bianca Johnston, Monash University; Catherine Flynn, Monash University, and Faith Gordon, Australian National University.
Bianca Johnston is employed for a youth non-for-profit organisation. This is separate to her PhD candidature.
Catherine Flynn has previously received funding from the Australian Research Council, the Victorian Department of Justice, and not-for-profit organisation SHINE for Kids for research in the area of criminal justice, and is currently in receipt of funding from SHINE to support research describing the needs of children who experience parental incarceration.
Faith Gordon receives funding from the Australian Research Council and the Australasian Institute of Judicial Administration.