Wang Xining did not pull his punches during a rare speech to the National Press Club in Canberra on Wednesday.
Mr Wang said the rift in the Australia-China relationship could only be fixed through goodwill and respect.
He said it was “not fair” Australia singled China out when calling for the inquiry and displayed a lack of courtesy and diplomacy.
"But more importantly, it hurt the feelings of the Chinese people," Mr Wang said.
COVID has killed more than 800,000 people globally including 549 in Australia.
China has launched several trade strikes against Australia in response to the inquiry.
Australian ministers have also been ignored by their Chinese counterparts for more than six months.
Mr Wang denied trade sanctions on beef, wine and barley were economic coercion and argued Australian ministers weren't following protocol.
He claimed China eventually agreed to the coronavirus inquiry because it was nothing like the finger-pointing exercise Mr Morrison first requested.
But Mr Wang side-stepped questions about where the coronavirus pandemic started if not in Wuhan, China. "I think it is up to the scientists to find out," he said.
Repeatedly pressed about the diplomatic freeze on Australian ministers, the deputy ambassador said: "There are some shadows over here about our relationship."
"So we need to make our position much more clear in order to remove the shadows and let the sun shine on our relationship."
‘Not asking Hungry Jack’s to sell dumplings’
Mr Wang said China did not interfere in Australia's internal affairs or want to change its culture.
"The last thing China wants to do is to inflict on others what China suffered, or to bully others as we were bullied."
He said China had no interest in imposing socialism on Australia. "We're not asking Hungry Jack's to sell Chinese dumplings," Mr Wang said.
But he made it clear China was not for turning on its social and political systems.
"China cannot afford to live in the Australian way or in the American way," Mr Wang said.
"We do not believe that unbounded materialism is sustainable or that excessive consumerism is ethical."
He launched an incendiary spray at critics of Confucius Institute partnerships between Chinese and Australian universities.
The deputy ambassador said China and Australia could both play active roles in promoting regional stability and prosperity.
"We don't see Australia as a strategic threat," Mr Wang said.
The relationship has also been heavily strained by foreign interference tensions, China’s human rights abuses and alleged genocide against its Uyghur population, and the decision to ban Huawei from Australia's 5G network.
Australian security agencies have also warned universities about the risks of Chinese government talent recruitment programs.
Ahead of the keynote speech, Prime Minister Scott Morrison said the Australia-China relationship was mutually beneficial.
"It's in both of our interests to continue to support and nourish that relationship," he told reporters.
"That's what Australia has always done, that's what we will continue to do."
MP Dave Sharma slam’s China’s ‘hurt feelings’
MP Dave Sharma, who now holds former Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull’s seat of Wentworth, hit out at Mr Wang’s comments on Twitter on Wednesday afternoon.
“Hurt feelings? At latest count COVID has killed 800,000 people worldwide and caused economic disruption on a scale not seen since the Great Depression,” he said.
“If getting to the bottom of what caused this generates some ‘hurt feelings’, I think that is the least of our concerns.”
Some of his followers thanks Mr Sharma for being outspoken, while others said angering China is a dumb move.
Do you have a story tip? Email: firstname.lastname@example.org.