Both defenders have missed the start of the new season having suffered injuries before making the move to west London.
The duo returned to training at Cobham last week and are now ready to be involved in Lampard's plans going forward.
Barnsley's visit to Stamford Bridge comes too soon for Hakim Ziyech, though the Moroccan and Christian Pulisic are making progress with their own respective recoveries.
"He is in the squad tomorrow," Lampard said of Silva, who turned 36 on Tuesday.
"He is getting fit and will make a decision on how many minutes he gets.
"Chilwell is in the squad tomorrow and Christian and Hakim Ziyech are getting closer as well."
Lampard also hands chances to a number of other players who have fallen down the pecking order at Chelsea since the glut of summer arrivals.
Tammy Abraham will be keen to impress, as will Callum Hudson-Odoi.
Chelsea XI: Caballero, Azpilicueta, Tomori, Thiago Silva, Emerson, Kovacic, Barkley, Mount, Hudson-Odoi, Havertz, Abraham
Subs: Baxter, James, Zouma, Chilwell, Jorginho, Werner, Giroud
Barnsley XI: Collins, Ludewig, Sollbauer, Halme, J Williams, Styles, Ritzmaier, Mowatt, Woodrow, Frieser, Schmidt
Subs: Walton, Oduor, Moon, Simoes, Chaplin, Adeboyejo, Thomas