Australia beat England by 251 runs to win the first Ashes Test at Edgbaston on Monday.
England, set an imposing target of 398 to win, collapsed to 97-7 in the post-lunch session on the fifth and final day before being bowled out for 146.
Off-spinner Nathan Lyon took 6-49 and fast bowler Pat Cummins 4-32 as Australia enjoyed their first win in all formats at Edgbaston since 2001 -- the last time they won an Ashes series in England.
Defeat for the home side ended their run of 11 successive international wins at their Birmingham 'fortress'.
The match was a personal triumph for Australia's Steve Smith, who in his first Test since a 12-month ban for his role in a ball-tampering scandal, scored 144 and 142.
In the process the star batsman became just the fifth Australian to score two hundreds in an Ashes Test.
His first-innings century helped guide Ashes-holders Australia to 284 after they had collapsed to 122-8.
England replied with 374, their first-innings lead of 90 built on a maiden Test century from left-handed opener Rory Burns, who made 133, and fifties from captain Joe Root and vice-captain Ben Stokes.
Former Australia captain Smith's second-innings century and a maiden Ashes hundred from Matthew Wade allowed visiting captain Tim Paine to declare on 487-7.
Australia capitalised on the absence through injury of James Anderson, England's all-time leading Test wicket-taker, who only sent down four first-innings overs before breaking down with a calf problem that meant he did not bowl again in the match.
The match was the first of the International Cricket Council's new World Test Championship, with Australia's win giving them 24 points.
The five-match series continues with the second Test at Lord's starting on August 14.
Australia 1st Innings 284 (S Smith 144; S Broad 5-86, C Woakes 3-58)
England 1st Innings 374 (R Burns 133, J Root 57, B Stokes 50; P Cummins 3-84, N Lyon 3-112)
Australia 2nd Innings 487-7 dec (S Smith 142, M Wade 110, T Head 51; B Stokes 3-85)
England 2nd Innings 146 (N Lyon 6-49, P Cummins 4-32)
Result: Australia won by 251 runs
Series: Australia lead five-match series 1-0
Australia's Nathan Lyon took six wickets as the visitors beat England in the first Ashes Test at Edgbaston