Highlights in history on this date:
1571 - A combined Austrian, Genoese and Venetian fleet decisively defeats the Turks off Lepanto, Greece. The bloodiest sea battle before the age of steam claims 33,000 lives.
1769 - Captain James Cook lands in New Zealand for the first time, at Poverty Bay.
1806 - Carbon paper is patented in London by inventor Ralph Wedgwood.
1849 - Death of US writer Edgar Allan Poe, aged 40.
1879 - Britain invades Afghanistan.
1908 - Crete rebels against Turkish domination and unites with Greece.
1916 - Taronga Park Zoo is established at its present site in Sydney.
1919 - KLM, the world's oldest surviving airline, is established in the Netherlands.
1940 - In World War II, German troops invade Romania to take control of strategic oilfields.
1949 - The Republic of East Germany is formed.
1950 - UN General Assembly approves Allied advance north of 38th parallel in Korean conflict.
1956 - Death of Clarence Birdseye, inventor of a process to deep freeze food for retailing.
1959 - The far side of the moon is photographed for the first time by the Soviet Union's Luna-3 spacecraft.
1963 - US President John F Kennedy signs a nuclear test ban treaty between United States, Britain and Soviet Union.
1968 - The Motion Picture Association of America adopts its film-rating system.
1970 - United Arab Republic Vice-President Anwar Sadat officially succeeds the late General Gamal Abdel Nasser as president.
1981 - Egypt's Vice-President Hosni Mubarak is nominated as successor to slain President Anwar Sadat.
1982 - The Andrew Lloyd Webber-Tim Rice musical Cats, featuring the popular song Memory, opens on Broadway.
1985 - Italian cruise ship Achille Lauro is hijacked by Palestinians in Mediterranean.
1987 - Coup leader Sitiveni Rabuka declares himself head of state of the new republic of Fiji.
1990 - Sheikh Rashid bin Said al-Maktoum, ruler of Dubai and prime minister and vice-president of the United Arab Emirates, dies after a long illness aged 76.
1996 - Peter Doherty of Australia and Rolf Zinkernagel of Switzerland win the Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine.
1997 - After a generation of bloodletting, political leaders of Northern Ireland's factions meet for the first full multi-party talks.
1999 - German firms and the government offer six billion marks to compensate hundreds of thousands of Nazi-era slaves and forced labourers.
2001 - The US and Britain launch a military attack in Afghanistan on Osama bin Laden, the prime suspect in the September 11 terrorist attacks on the United States, and his Taliban backers.
2003 - Austrian-born Hollywood actor Arnold Schwarzenegger becomes Republican governor of California in a recall election that sees voters throw out Democratic Governor Gray Davis.
2004 - Several truck bomb attacks kill 34 people and wound 120 in the Hilton hotel at the Egyptian border resort of Taba and in two other explosions at beaches near the resort.
2006 - Russian journalist Anna Politkovskaya, a critic of President Vladimir Putin, is shot dead at her block of flats in central Moscow at the age of 48.
2008 - A Qantas jet carrying 303 passengers and 10 crew from Singapore to Perth makes an emergency landing at Exmouth, in northern WA, after a sudden drop in altitude hurtles passengers around the cabin, injuring 74 people.
2011 - The Norwegian Nobel Committee honours women for the first time in seven years, awarding the peace prize to Liberian President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, Liberian activist Leymah Gbowee and Tawakkul Karman, who began pushing for change in Yemen long before the Arab Spring.
2012 - Venezuela's socialist president Hugo Chavez wins re-election.
2014 - North Korea acknowledges the existence of labour camps for the first time.
2015 - Volkswagen says more than 77,000 diesel vehicles sold in Australia are fitted with emissions-cheating software.
2016 - Ford closes its Broadmeadows plant in Victoria, shutting the door on its Australian carmaking industry after more than 90 years.
Sir Walter Raleigh, English explorer-poet-courtier (1552-1618); Niels Bohr, Danish nuclear physicist and Nobel Prize winner (1885-1962); Heinrich Himmler, Nazi Gestapo chief (1900-1945); Desmond Tutu, Anglican Archbishop in South Africa, winner of the 1984 Nobel Peace Prize (1931-); Thomas Keneally, Australian novelist (1935-); Clive James, Australian author-TV personality (1939-); Oliver North, former US National Security Council aide (1943-); Kevin Godley, British rock musician of 10CC (1945-); John Mellencamp, US singer (1951-); Vladimir Putin, Russian president (1952-); Yo-Yo Ma, cellist (1955-); Jayne Torvill, British skating champion (1957-); Simon Cowell, British record executive and TV judge (1959-); Thom Yorke, British rock singer of Radiohead (1968-); Tim Minchin, Australian musician and comedian (1975-).
Thought For Today:
There's many a mistake made on purpose - Thomas Haliburton, Canadian jurist-humorist (1796-1865).