Pope Francis has named 19 new cardinals, 16 of whom will hold voting rights in the conclave that elects the next pontiff.
Francis made the announcement as he spoke from his studio window to a crowd in St Peter's Square.
Sixteen of the appointees are younger than 80, meaning they are eligible to elect the next pope, which is a cardinal's most important task.
The ceremony to formally install them as cardinals will be held on February 22 at the Vatican.
Some appointments were expected, including that of his new secretary of state, the Italian archbishop Pietro Parolin, and the German head of the Vatican's watchdog office for doctrinal orthodoxy, Gerhard Ludwig Mueller.
But some names were surprising.
Vatican spokesman Federico Lombardi said the pontiff's selection of churchmen from Haiti and Burkino Faso, which are among the world's poorest countries, reflects Francis' attention to the destitute as a core part of the church's mission.
Also chosen to become a "prince of the church," as the cardinals are known, was Mario Aurelio Poli, the archbishop of Buenos Aires, a post Francis left when he was elected in March.