The Greens will move to establish a Senate inquiry into a leaking bund wall at Gladstone Harbour when parliament sits next month.
Greens Senator Larissa Waters says an independent probe into why the wall leaked in 2011 at the Curtis Island LNG dredging project will expose any cover-ups.
It will have the power to force witnesses from government and the port developers to appear and make documents public, she says.
"These powers could prove necessary given recent allegations of serious mismanagement," Senator Waters said in a statement.
"We need to get to the bottom of the Gladstone Harbour environmental disaster and get any cover ups out in the open."
The wall, designed to hold 25 million tonnes of dredged soil, reportedly failed because its interior lining was inappropriately placed on the side of the wall rather than being buried inside it.
Gladstone Ports Corporation (GPC) repaired the leak in 2012.
Green groups claim the leak caused dangerous chemicals to leech into the harbour, affecting marine life in the area.
A report released last year on sick fish in Gladstone Harbour found that flooding, combined with large numbers of fish being washed over the Awoonga dam, stressed the Gladstone Harbour ecosystem and adjacent waterways.
Federal Environmental Minister Greg Hunt has already ordered his department to conduct an inquiry into the leaking bund wall.
However, the Greens say a Senate inquiry is needed to ensure the "devastation" at Gladstone Harbour isn't repeated elsewhere in the Great Barrier Reef.
The push for the inquiry comes a month after the federal government approved the expansion of the Abbot Point terminal and the off-shore dumping of three million cubic metres of dredge spoil.
The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority has until January 31 to decide whether to grant permits for the dumping near the reef.